Peptides > Cell Permeable Peptides (CPP) / Drug Delivery Peptides
Efficient transfer of proteins or nucleic acids across cellular membranes is one of the major problems in cell biology. To deliver the functional domain of a selected protein from the outside to the inside of intact cells, a carrier is needed. Cell Permeable Peptides, also known as Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs), are carriers with small peptide domains that can freely cross cell membranes. Several PTDs have been identified that allow a fused protein to efficiently cross cell membranes in a process known as protein transduction. Studies have demonstrated that a TAT peptide derived from the HIV TAT protein has the ability to transduce peptides or proteins into various cells. PTDs have been utilized in anticancer strategy, for example, a cell permeable Bcl-2 binding peptide, cpm1285, shows activity in slowing human myeloid leukemia growth in mice. Cell-permeable phosphopeptides, such as FGFR730pY, which mimics receptor binding sites for specific SH2 domain-containing proteins are potential tools for cancer research and cell signaling mechanism studies.
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Time-lapse video of FITC-LC-Antennapedia peptide (cat# 24175, 24176) entry into a neuronal cluster of cells. Video courtesy of Dr. E. Gruenstein, Univ. of Cincinnati Medical School, Cincinnati, OH.
Figure 1. Uptake of CPP by HeLa cells. HeLa cells were incubated with OptiMEM medium containing 10 uM FITC-LC-Antennapedia, cat# 24175, 24176 (panel A) and 10 uM of TAMRA-labelled TAT (47-57), cat# 61211(B) for 1 h, washed and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Ref: Embury, J. et al. Diabetes 50, 1706 (2001), Wang, H. et al. J. Clin. Invest. 109, 1463 (2002); Lin, Y-Z. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14255 (1995); Holzberg, D. et al. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 40213 (2003); Williams, E. et al. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 22349 (1997); Nakatani, KH. et al. Nat. Med. 10, 1128 (2004); Mortlock, A. et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 31, e152 (2003); Kaneto, H. et al. Nat. Med. 10, 1128 (2004); Wang, JL. et al. Cancer Res. 60, 1498 (2000); Oess S. and E. Hildt, Gene. Ther. 7, 750 (2000); Dunican, D. et al. Cell Growth Diff. 12, 255 (2001).